Nonwoven fabric is a kind of fabric which does not need spinning and weaving. It is only made of short textile fibers or filaments, which are oriented or randomly strung to form a fiber net structure, and then reinforced by mechanical, thermal bonding or chemical methods. The nonwoven fabric breaks through the traditional textile principle, and has the characteristics of short technological process, fast production speed, high output, low cost, wide use, many sources of raw materials, etc. it is a new generation of environmental protection materials, with the characteristics of water-resistant, breathable, flexible, non combustion supporting, non-toxic, non irritant, rich color, etc. In the past 10 years, when the nonwoven fabric industry tends to be globalized, there are mainly the following categories of nonwoven fabric technologies:
① Spunlaced nonwoven technology
Spunlace technology is to spray high-pressure micro water into one or more layers of fiber nets, so that the fibers intertwine with each other, so that the fiber nets can be strengthened and have a certain strength.
② Heat bonded nonwoven fabric technology
Thermal bonded nonwoven fabric refers to the addition of fiber like or powder like hot-melt bonding reinforcement materials to the fiber mesh, which is then heated, melted and cooled to form a cloth.
③ Pulp air laid nonwoven fabric technology
The air formed nonwovens can also be called dust-free paper and dry process paper-making nonwovens. It uses the air flow to form a net to loosen the wood pulp fiberboard into a single fiber state, and then uses the air flow method to make the fiber agglutinate on the net forming curtain, and then the fiber net is reinforced into a cloth.
④ Wet nonwoven technology
Wet nonwoven fabric is to loosen the fiber material in the water medium into a single fiber, at the same time, mix different fiber materials to make fiber suspension slurry, the suspension slurry is delivered to the mesh forming mechanism, and the fiber is formed into a mesh in the wet state and then reinforced into a cloth.
⑤ Spunbond nonwovens technology
Spunbond nonwovens are made of continuous filaments after the polymer has been extruded and stretched. The filaments are laid into a net, and then the net is made into a nonwovens through self adhesion, thermal adhesion, chemical adhesion or mechanical reinforcement.
⑥ Melt blown nonwoven fabric technology
The technological process of melt blown nonwoven fabric: polymer feeding – melt extrusion – fiber formation – fiber cooling – mesh forming – reinforcement into fabric.
⑦ Needled nonwoven fabric technology
Needled nonwoven fabric is a kind of dry nonwoven fabric. Needled nonwoven fabric uses the puncture effect of the needle to strengthen the fluffy fiber net into cloth.
⑧ Sewing nonwoven fabric technology
Sewing nonwoven fabric is a kind of dry nonwoven fabric. It uses warp knitting coil structure to reinforce fiber net, yarn layer, nonwoven material (such as plastic sheet, plastic thin metal foil, etc.) or their combination to make nonwoven fabric.
Among them, Spunlaced nonwoven technology is the most widely used and most mature nonwoven technology.